Cross Border Nuclear Energy: Time to Think

Abstract: The nuclear disasters from the past few years have inquired about the crucial question of nuclear safety. Various international conventions have been passed for ensuring the safety of its use. Besides, domestic laws were also enacted to ensure the protection and security. However, the desire of more power has left a vital question about its use. One of the important areas of contemporary nuclear power is about the import and export of nuclear reactors. The purpose of the paper is to investigate various international conventions from the import-export point of view and will give some recommendation to avoid visible drawbacks in the international law.

Keywords: Nuclear Power, International Atomic Energy Agency

Citation: Narchoor, Raheela Saleem, Cross Border Nuclear Energy: Time to Think (May 14, 2011). Available at SSRN: or


Collective Ignorance of Gender Issues During Recent Floods in Kashmir

Abstract: The Jammu and Kashmir state has witnessed the worst ever flash floods in the last 109 years. The devastating floods that broke out during the beginning of September 2014, have affected over two million people in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Over 550,000 people have been displaced and living in camps. Thousands have lost their homes, crops and livestock. With infrastructure destroyed, hospitals, schools, shops, and local administrative units have all been badly damaged, and thousands have lost everything they owned. Devastating floods in Jammu & Kashmir has caused an immediate loss of Rs 5,400-5,700 crore to the state’s economy, with heavy damages to trade, hotels, restaurants, horticulture, and handicraft, according to initial estimates of industry body Assocham.

However, the impact of the disaster on the community varies according to caste, class, and gender as the affordability of copying mechanisms varies. Looking at the gender imbalances, the gender issue has largely been ignored during disaster work in Kashmir. Women, particularly from marginalized communities, were ignored in addressing their issues after floods. The main issue of their livelihood is ignored making them prone to various vulnerabilities.

In rural areas, most of the women have small landholdings/livestock which are the main source of income generation. In urban areas, the marginalized communities like Scheduled castes work as agricultural labourers or have taken land on lease and generate income from it. However, due to the recent floods, the land cultivating by rural women is washed away by water, destroying all crops, livestock, and left them without any sustainable source of livelihood. Similarly in urban areas, the agricultural women labourers have no option for getting work as land, crops and livestock are swept away by floods, thus left them without any work.

Moreover, winters in Kashmir are approaching very soon and ends in March 2015. During this period the whole valley is surrounded by snow. Everything is standstill and becomes hard for women, engaged in agriculture, to generate income from the land which is already destroyed by flood. Thus floods together with upcoming winters will impact gravely on income generation of these women which lasts for many months. This long and harsh period of winter adds more economic miseries to the Women Flood Victims (WFV)

Therefore, it is need of the time to chalk out the major programmes and policies for creating new livelihood options for WFV who have been gravely affected due to cultural constraints like low mobility, lack of decision making power, Violence against Women, and less ownership in land. The main aim of generate new livelihood options is to minimize disparities in terms socio-economic development of flood women victim and give them other sustainable livelihood options.

Citation: Narchoor, Raheela Saleem, Collective Ignorance of Gender Issues During Recent Floods in Kashmir (December 2, 2014). Available at SSRN: